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A number of minor additions have been included, which do not affect the thesis,


January 1997

The events planned before created time and
executed within it

Rev. Dr. Robert Donaldson

of the Presbyterian Church in America

Author of The Shadow of a Mighty Rock
(comprising: The Light that Shatters,
The Rock that Shades, and
Jesus Christ, Lord of Logic, Gift by Grace),

A Question of Gifts,

That Magnificent Rock

and other works

First published January 1997
by World Wide Web Witness Inc.
ISBN 0 9586992 7 5

Introduction, January 1997 (expanded May 1999, slightly further 2012)


This work, in conjunction with the trilogy, The Shadow of a Mighty Rock* and other works* on this site, shows one more aspect of the sovereign majesty of the God who uttered the Bible. In a sense it is APPLIED CHRISTIAN APOLOGETICS, showing from the basis demonstrated in that work:

i) the unique applicability of Christian teaching to the case of man, its intimate and infinite capacity to handle the data of man in the vast parameters of his powers, procedures and vitality.

ii) its clear, harmonious coverage of life and logic, undaunted amidst the chronic swamps of confusion in philosophy and its battalions, squatting paradoxically in 'Science'.

iii) the composition at the highest levels, of the entire place, purpose and position of man. It shows moreover, the base of his squandering of needless time by chronically looking where the answer is NOT to be found: and hence not finding it.

This comprehensive and harmonious coverage of the facets of man, precisely where philosophy founders and culture fails, is an a fortiori magnificence of the Rock which is Christ, of the word of God; it is one of the incomparabilities of the God who has so spoken, and so given us wisdom in His truth that he can so deliver man from confusion: it is one of the criteria without parallel in the world, of the word of God.

For thousands of years popular pagan philosophers, disdaining or ignoring the simple realities of the Creator and of the limitless transformation which that reality provides to our position, our condition and our capacities; or inventing deities which do not have the advantage of existence ... have spiralled.

They have vacillated around autonomy with its pseudo-adolescent fantasies, determinism with its slavish self-deceptions; they have liberated irresponsibility and instituted self-conditioning's mock solemnities: never guilty, always afflicted, yearning like gods, despairing like children. Meanwhile, they try, oh how they try to combine heteronomies from which to concoct mankind - a little matter, a little mind, a flush of libido, a swag of survival, a thrust of passion for races or cultures or nations, a little character, a lot of heredity and environment, in prosperity talking triumphant evolutionism, now amid systematically broken dreams, despairing amid the disquietudes of unconstructive angst.

All this they do and more: while forgetting or wilfully ignoring the spiritual environment and the vitality which comes from a chaste, deep and intimate relationship with God who made them. And this? It is as if a driver ignored the ground, a bird the sky or a ship the waters - not to say, the shipyard or the manufacturing plant.

Such colossal blindness reminds one of Matthew 13:14 and John 12:40, and we should look at this:

Hearing you will hear and shall not understand, and seeing you will see and not perceive. For the heart of this people has grown dull. Their ears are hard of hearing, and their eyes they have closed, lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears, lest they should understand with their heart and turn, so that I should heal them.

In case you should imagine that this was merely a Jewish phenomenon at that time, consult II Timothy 3:1-7, Romans 1:18ff. and I Timothy 4:1-4, revelation given to the 'Apostle to the Gentiles', or Matthew 24:6-14. As to the heart, there is no difference, Jew or Gentile: all have sinned.

Even those who put in will at last, like Schopenhauer, tend to forget its bounds and grounds, while the Kants try to distance it from God, by making Him so apart as to be merely imaginable, and his laws to be by decree - of Kant. Nice try! We look at this in the Appendix to Predestination and Freewill. Hume would have got rid of causation altogether, and is careful to describe the cause of his conceptions about the unreality of causation! Attention is given to these general areas and such approaches in different measures here and in The Shadow of a Mighty Rock, and to some extent in That Magnificent Rock.

Here, in Predestination and Freewill, it is shown that -

just as there is no rationale to freedom without a divine base;

nor personal meaning to responsibility, nor avoidance of irrational determinism and the immature stringencies of callow reductionism on the one hand§ , or illusory autonomy on the other - without access to this base:

so there is no escape from a depersonalising propositional abyss,

indeed from de-imaging man from the divine model:

except through the divine love and election, achieved in that God who is love.

By sovereign predestination within this love, the nature of His Being - that He eternally wills: there is an issue in children of God of whom the sinless Redeemer, the Saviour is the brother and Lord. The Bible covers uniquely and coherently all facets of the human case: invariant and without need to vary.

The word of God in verifiable fact, exhibits such a facility for harmonious contemplation of all these elements, as to be not only unique, but breathtaking. As we survey some of these its qualities - those relevant to our purpose in this thesis - the mind is arrested with the magnitude of the love of God, precisely as He declares it, just as it delights the heart with the intensely personal force of the divine beauty. That these sit together with the design for human freedom is both a wonder and a responsibility, under the awning of entire divine governance.

Such effortless combination is a jewel in its place. Its sides are not merely regular but flashing and a wonder.

If this stresses the extreme liability of man; and it does - it is one which this same God is willing to assume, at cost to Himself: one predestinatively paid, for those chosen before the foundation of the world, to which this Son was sent. If it is an incredible, even preposterous effrontery to reject Him who gave, bringing peace to mind, and heart, from Him who is the designer of both: in view of this cost to and integrity of God, it is also as we shall show, entirely the fault of man, and this in no empty form, as though God were NOT love, but provided merely an empty symbol of it.

With God, it is so in practical reality. God's attitude and power combined are guarantee express in His word, so that to reach hell, one must in a sense both true and sincere, do it over Christ's dead body in the face of a light of staggering integrity. That body is raised, but its significance is not lost.

It is because of that love that the lost are mourned in His word, and that He came to seek them. The celestial harmonies were translated into practical redemption and so Christ came to earth, verifying on earth the love of God.

These things being done, we delight in that word of God that endures like granite, in its beauty, verification again completed. The grandeur once more attested in scope, accuracy, realism, it is a paragon that philosophy cannot match: that is slave neither to futile reductionism to change the problem, nor of vainglorious aspirations, to ignore it.

It is that word which we attest, showing its multiple facets of harmonious perfection by means appropriate to such a task, without adding such explicatory devices to doctrine as such (cf. pp. 122-123, 145, 147-150 infra). The word of God, it is that word which is light unmatchable in the midst of all the writings of man, and having so attested, we focus anew in it on that Christ whom it depicts (pp. 148-149).

It is time man learned to glory in the God of the word, and in the word of God and to worship Him through the Man of His Power, the Son of His heart, the eternal Word made flesh (John 8:58, Hebrews 1:1-8), Jesus Christ, who translated things into a practice so phenomenal as to leave this current servile idolatry of sport and gurus, the throb of musical derangement and misplaced political power, and indeed all the pagan figures of history - but a dim shadow. I like sport; but in its place; history's often sober lessons, but considered with unaffected realism; the magnificent spiritual stimulus of which music is capable: but yet more, the paths of peace with purity. Like a bonnet on a car, I like also to be in my own place; and since that it is in God, not as a slave but as a friend through unpolluted grace, each day is a delight and a privilege.

It depends on the company; and that of God is unspeakable privilege. To work for Him is the ultimate in employment for any man.

It needs to be emphasised that people often have become so accustomed to the virtues of Biblical teaching that they may tend to forget its incomparable resolving power for this specific area of predestination and freewill, as for all human logical predicaments which man has made for himself. As here in logic, so there in personal affairs, it holds the key; and at the latter level, as in the former, it shows the way to the approach which prevails in every good thing: Jesus Christ. (Cf. The Shadow of a Mighty Rock, Chs. 5-7, esp. pp. 532-560).

The wonder is this: that just as His truth is sure and unimpugnable, so He also personally is still available (John 10:9, Romans 10:9, Matthew 24:14) - to whosoever desires (Revelation 22:17). Moreover, He knows who are His - knew it before the world was founded (Ephesians 1:4), and leaves nothing to chance! Further, He delights in mercy (Micah 7:18-20) and in the wonder of His sovereignty, loses none of His own (John 13:1-13).

As to His drawing, our coming and what He shows of His ways, we are about to embark on study. Of this be sure, He denies none who comes in His name, no one who calls on it, and puts the trust of the heart, according to His word, in Him: crucified, bodily risen, returning to rule, well-groomed in the flesh, perfect in spirit, deity in status, serving, interceding, the kiss of mercy on the page of righteousness, in the annals of truth (cf. Psalm 85).

We indicate that the election of sinners to salvation is essentially a matter which involves "cross-election" (cf. John 14:1-9), since the Christ on earth manifested God in heaven intrinsically, and hence the realities of heart which were transpiring in predestination itself; and since Galatians 6;14 insists that we glory not except in the Cross of Christ. That?  it implies as John Murray so well declaimed,  that eternal and blessed counsel of God, that plan of salvation, that entire dominion of love and discipline (His), power and resurrection, knowledge and humiliation.

It is indeed by these things that Christ both showed the integrity of His love in practical action which attests it (cf. Colossians 1:19-22), and the reality of the cost (His) which bespeaks that though He is sovereign, He is no dictator, the things concerned being substantive and glorious, intrinsic and lovely, sufficient and substantive (cf. Romans 5:1-11, Hebrews 10:1-14), holy and pure.
In quality, He bore what we must (otherwise) bear; for though He was innocent in guilt, yet was He vicarious in victory (cf. Isaiah 25:8, I Peter 1:22-25).

The Cross ? (cf. The Kingdom of Heaven, Appendix): It is the pivotal expression

  • of love,
  • of redemption,
  • of power

for it is merely a motion of centrality in a theme of glory, of spirituality in that there is none of this without love (cf. I Cor. 13), and no love which is not prepared to face cost.

It is the sublime necessity for man, that he take what is there offered, and the glorious spontaneity for God in this, that there is none to force Him to the steps He took  - which produces something of the glory of this inexhaustible wonder, so emphasised here by Paul in Galatians 6:14. The Cross is the mode which betokens the heart, for the heart which accepts the mode. It is the PERSON who does it, and WHAT He does: it is all of this.

  • It is the dignity of divine ignominy for the folly of human hostility (cf. Isaiah 53:12). It permits a transfer profound and sure (cf. II Corinthians 5:19-21). It is Christ and Him crucified, yea rather risen.

It is not a peremptory, capricious, dictatorial or arbitrary thing, this predestination by God, then;
in fact, since He declares He would have all men to be saved, as to attitude (I Timothy 2:1ff.- cf. SMR pp. 1128ff.), it is generic, freeing us by the superb dimensions of His love, who IS love
( I John 4:7ff.), from any thought of favouritism, of being ravished differentially by disgrace and disorder - however much deserved, as indeed it is - because of an unreliable lack of amplitude in His dispositional lovingkindness (cf. esp. putative schema in SMR p. 638, with 635).

This sort of short-circuited divine love is excluded in the Bible (Colossians 1:19ff.), which also presenting God as intensely personal, deliberative, weighing all things and knowing all things (cf. A Question of Gifts, Section VII), makes it clear that the exclusion of souls, which occurs for so many, is one NOT from natural qualities, as if God were selfishly seeking people select and choice in themselves, and grasping them by a specious predestination then merely allegedly all of grace; for all have sinned  being without God and without hope in the world, alienated from the life of God, while outside the salvation in Christ Jesus;  and NONE appreciates the actual spiritual things adequately, until saved by grace, so to avoid foolishness concerning them (I Cor. 2:9ff.).

NONE has the natural qualities inherently to respond effectually to this love. ONLY by a change which ONLY God can secure, does this reality of response have release, come to actuality. Otherwise all are automatically lost as servants of sin, whose lives are alienated from the life of God (Ephesians 2:1ff., 4:17ff.) Nor is it a work proceeding from divine caprice, since the love is not cornered by divine self-indulgence, self-satisfaction or self-directed desire that does not consider the object of the love. God does not lack as if He NEEDED completion, not being as if created, or subject to this and its kind, and so exists without any containing, crimping or cramping limits at all, the Creator of all limits as of all things. He needs no conferment. His love is pure and towards His creation, and His selection is not reward for virtue, but generic love's consummation. As it is grand, so it is assured; and predestination grants this wonder as a certainty.

Thus NO religion or philosophy can compete in showing the REALITY of human RESPONSIBILITY, since none other presents

a) a personal God

i) who knows all things, makes no mistakes, has no natural or other forces to incline askance from knowledge or reality.
ii) who has all willingness to save all, but only within truth, never by force or violence to will.
iii) who has a procedure whereby justice is satisfied, so that love is not limited to what by nature is inferior in any respect - namely, the Cross.

b) who is thereby enabled to effect lovingkindness without respect to ANY good in the receiver, the saved soul.

c) who thus makes ALL of salvation a donation;
while remaining One ...

d) who secures such results in the saved, that their position as children of God, with character composed on that mould, redeemed AND restored, is neither illusory on the one side, nor peremptory on the other side, as if truth were no more truth, because love is love.

In this way, responsibility for loss is entirely of man, love for the saved and over and towards all DISPOSITIONALLY is entirely of God, and the justice otherwise so abused that the selection would HAVE to be arbitrary or purely peremptory for the One selecting, is now maintained, while the love is fulfilled not by whim, or say-so, but by effort and work and results. These proceed from God Himself alone, foreknowing not the virtue but the preference of the persons of those not yet created, apart from the works of their day (Romans 9). These, not yet sinners or limited by its guile and wiles, are not gifted with inherent superior grace or face, or so beheld, with the differentials which sin imposes, this, being chosen in Christ (Ephesians 1:4), being pre-temporal, works apart, the willingness to come to the light, foreknown (John 3:19). Thus no cloud obscures the reality, nor distorts the result. Foreknowledge apprises of it; predestination secures it, as in all God's works, the truth triumphant.

This divine finding involves divine funding from the first, and is so based till the last. The whole status as freely chosen and salvation as a free gift, is practically obtained by Christ at the Cross, to enable the restitution; and then, as to quality and life,  empowered by the Spirit of God, to enable the continuing characterisation of the children with the properties of children ... of God, and this willingly; and yet this again, so that responsibility even here is not lost. For the status is not the function; but merely the basis for it.

What results ?

Through the word of God, not merely is freedom-determinism resolved, as shown in these pages, but also evidenced coherently and systematically, is autonomy's basis and folly, volition's reality, love and justice in their parallel concerns, authority and responsibility, personality and restraint, divinity and humanity all in their mutuality: how ?

In consistently applying precisely what the Bible teaches, all of it, to the point. It is there that it is found. Nothing else can coherently cover all this for the simple reason that nothing else has the necessary ingredients of love and cost, reality and design, image of God creation and death of Christ invitation to share, to come in by going out, so that nothing that is partial shall glory. Neither shall it  exalt itself nor justly complain; for nothing lasts, all being crucified with Christ, as the apostle Paul so strongly attests (Galatians 2:20, Ephesians 2:1-10), as part of the reality of salvation.

This indeed is inherent in it, so that none may glory, so that likewise none may lament their loss because of some extrinsic cause, from the Kingdom of Heaven (cf. Isaiah 2:17, Luke 19:42, John 15:21-23).

Here then is not merely the exhibition that the Bible has a harmony magnificent and arresting, because it has so comprehensive a coverage of all the realities of man in this sphere, which in fact nothing else has ever achieved in the history of human thought, often called philosophy: so that God is shown where He is, infinitely superior to man, being his Creator. In fact, there is more.

The very ingredients are essential to the resolution of the problems in this sphere, any departure bringing in not merely an impoverishment but an omission from the needful form of harmony, covering all the issues. They are, quite simply, found nowhere else: only in the word of God.

THAT, it constitutes in verifications, merely one more,  relating not only to the unique and total resolving power of the word of God, but to the grandeur which is inherent in Bible, the word of God, confirming what it claims in depth upon depth, dimension upon dimension, height over height, breadth beyond breadth. To these things now the reader may make address, for God has already, and long made His own declaration, more immovable than  the sun, and far brighter.

In general, note that only slight or cosmetic changes are made to the original 1964 thesis. However, some short added elements of more interest are set to appear in this font, its colour and character, within one style of brackets i.e.{ }, throughout the work. In substance, thrust and position, however, it is unaltered, so that in all essentials it is true to the original.

To the text of Predestination and Freewill, original preface and then contents: proceed here.

NOTE that  a Supplement in 1964 was provided to the thesis, and it was named


or Freedom without Flounces


Thus there is a 1964 Supplement to M.A. Thesis, presented to University of Melbourne following oral examination on the thesis,




*Other References

·       on this Site, and domain  -  http://webwitness.org.au

·     may be found in Predestination and Freewill, Responsibility, Foreknowledge and allied subjects.

Firstly, this topic as above, has now for some time been covered (2012  with extension to 2014) in a


of which

Predestination and Freewill is the first volume.

This is the Predestination and Freewill Heptad, its formal name:


                               To this additions are made, some this year.


Other references may be noted as below (as from 2003).

These are to be found, esp. as indexed or indicated

v     a) under various headings both in the SMR index, and the Index  for the 56 volumes of  'The Rest', now in 2014, that number having increased to over 220. For full details of the various INDEXES, see SEARCH as provided in the margin of the Home Page. For contents of the published volumes in review, see Library, or Aporchestra or The Site in the City, the last with some more data. The last also includes a second, short list of the volumes, together with the normal hyperlink connection to each volume.

Relevant Index items, that in bold print are very extensive,  and here hyperlinked,  include

Freedom, Predestination, Foreknowledge, Determinism.

  • b) in  The Shadow of a Mighty Rock

i) at the start of Ch. 8,
ii) on pp. 424-431, 421-424, and
iii) Ch.2, pp. S1-S34, and in
iv) Appendix B in that work ;

but also in conjunction with

  • c) That Magnificent Rock, Ch.7.

    For further, see
  • d) Tender Times for Timely Truths (May 2000),

i) Ch. 2, esp. the Excursion *1 (touches on Calvin), and as marked 

Ch. 11,

  • e) Cascade of Truth, Torrent of Mercy Ch. 9 (includes reference to Calvin),   2,  7
  • f) The Kingdom of Heaven Ch. 4#

  • g) Spiritual Refreshings for the Digital Millenium Chs. 9, 10, 12,
  • h) Repent or Perish 1 esp. *1 2,  5
  • i) News, Facts and Forecasts Ch. 4, and

  • j) The Power of Christ's Resurrection ... Chs.  1,    7
  • k) Great Execrations ... Ch.   9
  • l) Repent or Perish Chs.   1,   2,   5

  • m) Licence for Liberty Ch. 7

  • n) Red Alert Ch. 1, Ancient Words, Modern Deeds Ch. 1, 10   -11

  • o) Light of Dawn Ch. 1

  • p) Sparkling Life in Christ Ch.  7

The indexes as found in Search amount to hundreds of pages and are a useful source for checking topics deemed relevant to any study.






Area Chosen

This is a treatment in a defined theological setting of a metaphysical problem, intended to show its susceptibility to solution in that setting, and to draw out appropriate inferences. Thus an intra­systematic study, it deals with the historic Christian­theistic* concepts of predestination and freewill in their unique setting, and in their unique definition.
* Defined, pp.39­40 infra.


First come introductory considerations. While effort is made to relate our presented Christian­theistic view to common­sense considerations and to alternatives at the specific level of our interest, so far as the scope and extent of our Thesis will allow, we are basically seeking to analyse this system for consistency and not to argue for it.

As we proceed with introduction (Section I), we find our area of discourse quite closely related to wider philosophical controversy; observe some of the difficulties of other views while preparing with some reference to simple bases, for the format of our own; and develop the idea of human freedom increasingly in the Christian­theistic setting, making it derivative from God's freedom, which we discuss and apply as necessarily implied in our basis. It is shown that this solves problems inherent in the very concept of freedom as a separable topic of analysis; but that just because God is infinite and disparate as sovereign Creator, certain internal problems must arise in defining human freedom with respect to such a base.

Investigation suggests, what it will be a part of our task to prove, that these problems do not exhibit inconsistencies within the system concerned, so much as a challenge to logical and coherent thought in so vast a realm: one which requires some conceptual acclimatisation. We do however thus early find that one major area of our research must be: The conceptualisation of human freedom as derivative for its very meaning and viability from divine freedom, when the divine is sovereign.

If we can solve this and related problems in predestination, which obviously is a specific outreach of sovereignty, we shall have explored a system commendable above others for internal consistency and facility in interpreting, as also scope in embracing the relevant data, which are always an area of intellectual concern, academic controversy and unrest. In this sense, and indirectly only, our analysis will have apologetic implications in favour of Christian­Theism. It is the doctrines of this system which constitute our specific data.

In Section I, we also develop basic components of the relevant doctrines which are our data, considering major problems which may appear to be present in our field. Some may challenge the meaningfulness of freedom in such a system; some that of sovereignty some the compatibility of the two. They may attack the competence or the completeness of Christian­Theism in consistently offering solution to age­old queries. If those queries relevant to our field, were unanswerable, we would in effect have to allow that when applied for verification the concepts employed were deficient.

Even to these applications of principles which we employ, therefore, we look; and we seek in a preliminary manner to show that some of these problems are illusory, and have a statable basis from which their persistence has partly originated. Some however depend on a searching probe into the meaning of our concepts, often challenging by inadequate formulation, their competence. Where this is the case, and the test is worth­while and not readily dealt with, the matters concerned are reserved for our final presentation of theory on this topic, in terms of which we aim to meet them; at that stage (Section III) not hesitating to employ provisional conceptualisation for reasons which will appear.

Historically many exponents have invested thought in this area of doctrine, and deep controversies have raged. Several volumes could no doubt be composed in scholarly review of these fascinating developments. Yet since in this Thesis they can receive a mere fragment, we cannot explore the details in a literary manner; nor the great, in terms of any academic vogue or even historic eminence; nor many. To omit reference, however, to such brilliant spokesmen would seem almost ludicrous in any endeavour to solve such a problem; and this is the more so where they wrestle suggestively with our problem, or are fertile controversialists. These considerations cumulatively do suggest our procedure regarding historical matters.

Accordingly, in Section II we shall touch what are felt the most necessary parts of AUGUSTINE for our purpose, noting any variation under stress; the partial but stimulating contribution of BOETHIUS; we shall look on the martial stress of LUTHER in his Bondage of the Will; the irenic thought of SPURGEON; the systematic vigour of CALVIN, seeking any over­simplification or omission of importance; and the reciprocally concerned vigour of practical WESLEY as well as his note on a mode of rapprochement with Calvinism.

In this, we shall seek to cull any seemingly helpful contribution to the case as it will then appear; to detect and reject any alien philosophical components, as for example and conceivably, a systematisation on a master concept (such as sovereignty or freewill) not studiously and accurately drawn from the ostensible source material of doctrine with which we are concerned; and to purify a series of major and uncontested statements ready for future reference in the final solution.

By this stage, our problem has not only been dissevered from the obtrusions of other views as from internal distortions, but lit with valuable illuminative flares. Thus in Section III, we reach the main objective of the exercise: specifically the provisional but adequate conceptual Solution to the problem of predestination and freewill as it concerns Christian­Theism.

This will largely be a 'pure' study. In other words, instead of taking this matter from a problem point of view, we will seek to expound it from an essential point of view. If we are successful, our 'pure' consideration will already virtually have answered the 'applied' perplexities. In so far as space permits, however, some application is intended for a partly independent problem: that of the distribution of evil. Even this, notwithstanding, will be to no small extent dependent on the major construction. In any case for the actuality of divine control and disposition of events, developed in relation to some concept of human relevance to divine exactions, this is a residual if normally unrelished area requiring at least a basic coverage. With the doctrine of predestination in full face, along with justice and general sovereignty, this area will moreover not be uninteresting.

Heterologous Ancillary Analysis

The Thesis, then, is directed to an exhibition of the consistency of concepts in a given conceptual area. As such' it is not at all concerned with the problems and claims of other areas. To the extent that it is specialised and limited in extent, this is almost necessarily so, and requires no defence.

However an additional consideration may be seen to derive from the contemporary extra­systematic nexus. There is, it is held by the present writer, a whole series of current theological models built in part on philosophical bases presented by Kant. They may add Hegelian adjustments at times; but they are most deeply cognate with Kant.

As they do not pretend to accept the text of Scripture as their wholly valid and exclusive conditioning data in reaching their positions, they do not systematically concern us here at all, in that this Thesis is specifically an intra­systematic enquiry into the relationship between certain concepts doctrinally derivative from Scripture, when this is regarded without qualification as foundational (see pp.41­42 supra). Nevertheless, there may be something of perspective here to be gained by at least an express adversion** to these movements of theological flux. They are popular, though less so than is often imagined. Their philosophical basis in Kant, we believe, is untenable, as is the implicit Kantian thrust against direct revelation from the Trinitarian God, such as we examine. To show that Kant's relevant view is logically unacceptable, will thus doubly destroy even the appearance of relevance in these divergent theological models, in so far as they have ever claimed to be designable as reasonable, and do in fact rely on Kantian estimates of reality.
** See Thesis, p. 61, with endnote 38 infra.

Attention to a popular and occasionally nearly Scriptural diversion from historic Christian­Theism (supra, loc.cit.) in the form of the basic Kantian view may also serve a more direct purpose. It may clarify some thinking in implying what is not the Scriptural approach, and in particular, the distinction of certain heterologous concepts with their ideational idiosyncrasies. In the contemporary situation, these might otherwise tend to be unconsciously assumed, with their corollaries ­ despite the learning in the early part of the Thesis ­ with a result of confusion in the mind of the reader.

For these reasons, some ancillary labour has been expended in presenting in our Appendix a short summary refutation of Kantian consistency.

This Appendix will be terminated by an indication of grounds on which we might expect that in such a system as Kant's, such a result could not be avoided. From the one uniform position, therefore, we may obtain both consistency and a basis for review.



There are three Sections, dealing respectively with the Fundamentals, the Development and the Resolution, together with an Appendix on Immanuel Kant, his salient errors and his inadvertent stimulus in this field. Procedurally, the stress in the analysis moves from freedom to predestination.  Page numbers are left as of interest, relative to the current printed edition. 





Part 1 Its Origin. 14-19

Part 11 Its Condition. 19-24

Part 111 Its Quality in Conversion and

Correlation with Predestination. 24-34

Endnotes for Section I 34-38



1. The Basis of Enquiry 39-40

2. Procedure in Perspective 41-42


Part I.



1. Initial Survey. 42-46

2. The Hope of Harmony. 46

3. The Exigencies of Extremes. 46-52

4. The Diversity of Tendencies. 52-57

5. A Textual Consideration. 57-60

6. Dynamic Equilibrium in the Confessions. 60-62

7. Analysis of Development. 62-64


1. Perspective Perceptible in the Distribution of Evil in the Universe. 65-66

2. Foreknowledge. 66-68

3. Time. 68-69


1. Boethius ­ The Man of Sensibility. 70-74

2. Spurgeon ­ The Moderate. 74-78

3. Luther ­ The Zestfully Decisive. 79-80

a. A Place for Free Will? 80-83

b. The Nature of Free Will. 83-84

c. General Criticism in the Area of Our Purpose. 84-87

d. Evil and Necessity. 87-88

e. Necessity and Predestination: Truth and Revelation. 88-91

4. Calvin ­ The Systematiser. 92-93

a. De Mysterio. 93-94

b. The Sovereign of Sovereignty. 94-95

c. The Son of the Sovereign. 96-100

5. A Word from Wesley. 100-104

Conclusion of Section II 104-105

Endnotes for Section II: 105-113



1 Terminology. 114-115

11 Ultimate Recourse. 115

111 The Propositions. 115-121

B. SUBSTANCE 121-206


1. Father and Son. 121-129

i) In Se. 121-124

ii) The Measure of Man. 124-125

iii) An Ontological Point. 125-129

2. Sovereignty without Tyranny. 129-135

3. Sovereignty without Frustration. 135-138

4. A Creative Analogy. 138-140


1. Introductory Considerations. 141-142

2. In Se. 142-144

3. The Necessity and Prescient Relevance of 145-148


i) Necessity. 145-147

ii) Relevance. 147-148

The Sincerity and Selectivity of Sovereign Foreknowledge. 148-153

Part III. THE-WILL-IN­-SIN. 153-182

1. General Perspective. 154-160

2. Cross­Election. 160-169

3. History and Hypostasis. 169-171

4. Review. 171-173

5. Freedom. 173-179

6. The Special Problem of Ignorance. 179-182



Endnotes for Section III 191-206


Immanuel Kant - A Benignant Obstacle 207-209

1. Etiological Considerations in the Conception of Kant's Kingdom

The First Inconsistency .. The Moral 209-219

2. Informal Irruptions

The Second Inconsistency .. The Experimental 219-222

3.The Unity of Causality ­ Conceived and (Directly) Created 222-225

The Third Inconsistency .. The Ultra-Systematic

The Fourth Inconsistency .. The Rational

4. The Extradition of Noumena

The Fifth Inconsistency .. The Extra­Systematic. 225-226

5. Nonentity of Noumena Objectively

The Sixth Inconsistency .. The A-Systematic 226-228

6. The Inadequate Antinomy 228-237

7. Service by Indirection 237-238

8. The Grace of Perspective 238-243

Endnotes for Kant Appendix 243-249