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THE UNWISDOM, OF USING AQUINAS
IN CHRISTIAN APOLOGETICS
Thomas Aquinas, see also Department of Bible, Vol. 5,
SMR pp. 1035ff., 950ff., 1059-1060,
and on the Romanist system (R.C.),
see SMR pp.1032-1088H, and 911ff..
Thomas Aquinas makes notable errors, as might be expected of one who quite freely refers to the necessity of delivering up those who disagree with the dominant theories of the Roman body, to the secular body for extermination, and conceives of a piece of bread as the body of Christ with no shadow of scriptural justification, but utterly contrary to Christ's direct designation of the same. Indeed, using his systematics is an invitation to confusion as will be shown; and what does so, is not only playing with fire, but consigning it to the kitchen. While approach to a failed system is not per se deadly, since it is a system, yet it resembles, when one is on spiritual business bent, a choice to go to the kitchen door via a mine-field. It is not to be recommended.
Aquinas mischaracterises the nature of God by making Him, as being actual and having no potential in being (in essence correctly) to mean and imply that He is action. The idea is that this is the only way He can be expressed. But this is not so. God CONTINUES with FULL hands on for potential for all that He does, His foreknowledge and predestination on the way making history mere action from a prepared base. The base does not eliminate the reality, for He is in all respects the living God. The Bible makes it eminently clear that He is emotionally, spiritually, morally, personally, deeply and surveyingly involved with man, so that His life is continual in all dimensions, not an action source as depictable. He may yearn, seek, have inter-relationships of deep and variable character, not as action, but agent and author and lover and friend IN POTENTIAL as far as the actuality is concerned, even though the outcome be known. Aquinas loves to separate things, but in God there is no such scope. He is as He is and not as philosophically itemisable, though aspects may be noted.
This error translates itself in the mischaracterisation of the human will, where Thomas comes to the appalling level of some humanists. Since God, he considers, must provide the ultimate impetus, it is His own business whether He saves (in mercy), or damns (by not applying it). He has Him here as in Aristotle, apart without the intense personal communication with His creation. Determinism, as The New Schaff-Herzog of Religious Knowledge indicates (Vol.XI, p. 424), is close to him. "Determinism is deeply grounded in the system of Thomas." In the intrusive manufacture of God, "things with their source of becoming in God are ordered from eternity as the means for the realization of his end in himself." God is thus set down as one unity who seeks His own, whereas in love, He was even willing in Christ to die stricken from His own. He is utterly different from these papier-mâché gods.
How trivial therefore does Aquinas' system make this god after the image of man, or similar sentient beings. He is deemed to seek His own existence, to will it and so on, as if on a par with other existences which may will their own continuance. However in fact, His nature is LOVE (I John 4:7-10), which is busy willing goodness BY NATURE, and was willing to give up human life altogether in death, for its own sake! The incomparability reaches even to incompatibility, for God is, and if creations will at times that they must continue to be, He DOES continue to be and needs no preoccupation, for it is intrinsically eternal, nor is there any determinism, nor abstract continuity with other things in this. He went as far as to die in order to be Lord of all. THAT is His attitude, and the perfection of love. To what will you compare God ? Not as unknowable - for this IS eternal life, that you should know God and Jesus Christ whom He has sent as in John 17:1-3; but as incomparable. He transcends, and not only surpasses but does so as infinity to the finite, eternity to the temporal, incandescent purity to the imperfect.
While in the Aquinas system, human beings are not said to be mere instruments, but to have their own mode of existence, yet for all that, when it comes to their destiny, it is precisely as directed by God, without the ultimate interplay of freedom at least notionally, an essential part of the image of God reality which is a primary basis of all history and a primary element in the composition of man..
Just as God's foreknowledge is of something that lives (He does not die to His own intellect), and in which life accordingly is poured out in history in just such terms as were known before history, which in no way interferes with the dynamic actualities in life, but rather foreshadows these: so man's action RELATIVE TO GOD is by no means a mere divine deposit with no power for the existent, man, ultimately to influence it one way or the other. To be sure, in history he has through sin a relevant disablement; but reality from before time supervenes. Sin does not utterly destroy the image of God in man; it merely rots it. God is able to activate to whatever level, and philosophies that leave out the action of God in assessing what happens in conversion leave out the infinite, no small error! But it is all settled in terms of what God is, with His outgoing love and desire for the salvation of all (Colossians 1:19ff., John 3, I Timothy 2), and how He does it, in the precincts of foreknowledge, before time even lifted its face or found its place, there being no place.
Many fall for these errors, as if some mystery swallowed all, and a declared love and a cited preference in the face of this love, His profundity of love, for darkness, were not written ground of exclusion. As God spoke and the universe of all creation came, so God speaks in His word, and the universe of understanding must come, Psalm 119 being an excellent example of the zeal with which this is to be done, one that comes from the liberated heart. There can be no omissions of anything.
The mystic model, however, is eminently deficient, as if God were NOT known, or did not statedly seek that all be reconciled, or that all come to the knowledge of the truth. Indeed, this omits all the contrary divine declarations such as Isaiah 48:15ff., Matthew 23:37ff., I Timothy 2:1ff., Ezekiel 33:11ff., Colossians 1:19ff.. To be sure, without God there is no good to obtain, and without salvation, there is no relief to be discovered; this is true. Yet it is the MODE of APPLICATION which is here the focus, and Aquinas has no place for man in this. With such an approach, an unseen God makes an unknowing man an utter dependency without redress. This COULD be in terms of power and purpose; but the God of the Bible is not such a god as that. So He repeatedly indicates, often with profound insistence.
Far is this mystic error from the Bible. God is both knowable, and the object of due knowledge by man, and man resists, this preference for darkness being cited IN THE FACE of the divine love for this world, that it might be saved and not condemned, even right down to the individual level. Negative destiny is the cited cause of the divine desire not being fulfilled. Far is this from obscure dealings in mere authority. It is breach of a defined divine reach, backed by the divine heart which does not invade, but invites.
Just as Aquinas mischaracterises the divine nature and the human will relative to God, so he also argues amiss on possibility and necessity. While it is true that God is logically necessary, in order that anything should be temporary, it is not true that since everything is dependent on its possible existence (like possible characters for a novelist to put into his book) from the necessary source, that this means that at some time or in some way everything would THEREFORE being only possible, not even exist, meaning there would be only nothing evermore. The possibility IN which existence is said to depend is not the same as the possibility BY its source, through which it exists. God might or might not elect (in the abstract such as Aquinas moves in) to have all possibles uninvoked. That is up to Him. There is no necessity about it for argument.
What this confuses is the fact that without the means to exist as well as subsist, nothing could be; and if you proceed further and ignore God while you are at it, then nothing would be all and hence we could never be. But we are. That God must be is as Romans indicates, logically certain. But He is no first Cause. He is the cause of temporal and spatial causality as a system. It is a volume He presents in this matter, not an item. Contrary to Aquinas, logically it matters enormously whether God created things altogether, or merely was always with them*1.
He has to be seen necessarily APART, contrary to Aquinas' loved Aristotle*2. He not only can exist without things, but necessarily does so at the ultimate level. This is an essential aspect of His glory. It is not the first mover which is needed, this a mere part, but the maker of what moves. That He is adequate to create it, is clear; but that He DID so create what was entirely absent and in substance, system and correlation in no way there, is essential. If God plus creation were eternal or any part thereof, then there is a system which requires a maker of the system. Even if it be said (but not by God), that God always wanted that systematic alliance, and so had it, yet as it is not part of Himself, the sufficient and necessary cause of all, it like time, being His creation contrary in kind to Himself, who has no necessity to do anything, such thought is futile, contradictory and derogatory to the divine. What is not in accord with His unique kind (in fact a uniqueness in itself) without the warrant of creation, has nowhere from which to come, or to which to go.
Not only does the Bible state the absolute diversity, in fact as well as in thought, and declare the beginning for all that is not God (Genesis 1, John 1:1-14), so that the even the category of the made as such is created by Him, but even reason shows this. Just as, as a divine act brought from the thought of God, the curse causeless does not come (Proverbs 26:2), so does nothing else outside the very being of God. There are, as John indicates, two categories, the made and the Maker, Creator, and as to the former, Christ made it and all in it, so that there is nothing made that He did not make, even in the Person of Christ. John puts it so amply: All things were made by Him (statement about the necessity of their coming to be by His explicit action, without exception, apart of course, from Himself who did the making); and then secondly, without Him was nothing made that was made.
Universally, there was an act of making all that is not God by God, and not merely a potential or a principle in something; and there is nowhere to be found anything in this noted dimension of the made that is not itself the product of the Lord Himself.
This is HIS NATURE as so defined. It is both declared and basic, and exhaustively consigning to the cause of the Lord's creation, all that is. Any other situation would be that of another God, One who could have His eternity co-existent with what is not God, a medley, mixture, causatively a secondment. No law can be except He causes it to exist, neither form nor substance, kind nor category, and without His deployment of His resources, apart from Him, there is nothing. IN this deployment, thought is father to action, and His being is behind His thought. Without action, there is nothing. He is not some mere first cause, but the cause of causality, of time and space, so that there is nowhere for anything to go without His action, nor anything to go there.
A god who does not so cause all, inhabits a situation, and does not cause it, so becoming a constituent, requiring the actual God for his creation; and so a figment. As to God, the case is that "of Him and through Him and to Him are all things," Romans 11:36. He acts, they come; He does not act, they are not there, whether ab initio, or in transit. ALL things are of and through Him, and not capable of existence without coming from Him and by Him, who alone is eternal, conferring what He will on His creation, to change its future from the domain of its null past. Put differently, a cause which has already caused what is there without creation, is not the creator of that consequence, nor hence of all things, nor, consequently, is God.
Not only does He ALONE have immortality (I Timothy 6:16), but alone have existence as isolable by nature, eternal, creating all things by Himself (Isaiah 44:24, 45:18). This is essential to the uniqueness, the splendour, the majesty and the glory of the all-creating God. Indeed, one reason WHY He is worthy to receive glory and honour and power, is statedly this: "for you created all things, and by Your will they exist and were created," (Revelation 4:11). NOT ONLY do all things EXIST through Him, but as to the mode of that existence, it is achieved through creation, no preludes, no exemptions, no dallyings, no deployments into eternity for any creation. What is not there, when put there by creation, achieves its being as an entity through the entirety of that action. Creation does not appertain to what is not created!
Nor is anything uncaused (because always there) have independent means of support, that it might be there without being instituted - and by whom, if instituted, except by God, and not some dreaming surrogate, who is supplied with things without action, or has enabled things without making them, caught up in a planning state that needs no execution. Such is being apart made by the mind of Aristotle, and it is here that Aquinas errs.
It is utterly essential that the Cause and Origin of all things be so, not in word only, as if it were a courtly exercise to say so, but in actuality. Indeed, it is well to remember here Colossians 2:8. If anyone or body chooses to ignore this warning concerning the productions of the thoughts of man elevated to the awesome ways of the Creator, concerning "vain philosophy", then it is like adding some kind of spiritual DNA to the testimony of God, inserting some heady concepts of dream that does not need doing. From this contribution, which is to add to the "form of sound words", you come near to gaining the full content of "the winepress of the wrath of God," Revelation 14:20, the output of the grapes of wrath, daring to humble God to the level of intestinal combination with creation, inseparable in actuality from it.
Distinguishability in thought is one thing; in actuality is another. It is the latter which is logically and biblically required categorically in order to account for all things temporal and spiritual, existential and ontological, actual and factual, in extancy and in exhibition or in internality and hiddenness, in time or in any other conception. that are not themselves the Creator. Time itself is a creation of things passing and their container, and with it, all that it contains requires creation that it might be functional and filled.
Every single aspect, every sphere, every domain, everything living and inanimate, systematic and freed, every element, every building block, the art of building in time and space, before their creation that they might have it conferred on them, after their creation that there might be building, all is instituted, constituted and upheld by Him, and of all HE is the Creator, ontologically, conceptually, existentially, temporally, systematically, in various individualities, whether in His image or otherwise.
Accordingly, a cause operative in what is already there is not the cause of its totality, for what is already made, for whatever reason, escapes the totality of His causation, creation and institution not only of all things, but of all means for their mutual continuation, as in Romans 8:38 also. Even height and depth, future and past are creations, being exposed to an existential necessity of ACTION as CAUSE on the part of Him who is both the beginning and the end, for creation cannot be side-stepped in terms of mere principle: it is principial that if it is made, He made it (as in John 1:1-3), an act so that it might be. For one and for all, for any other being, He acts without help or any other existent thing, that any thing might be, and causally it is created so that it might gain being. God and act are not the same, but the One is the sufficiency for the other. When He in His Majestic Being acts, results are minted from His hand. Existence is not an ooze, but a grant, and when it is given, then the non-automated God releases it from thought to the condition of actually, actively existing. It has a name: creation, and we are all very familiar with it, for it is a wonder, and however little our own contributions, like music, it has its own ways.
Ours are on a given basis; His are without any ground or contributing means. He acts as He will to produce what is not Himself, being first there to do it. It comes to be to fulfil that creation made by will to institute what is not Himself.
In accord with this, its status, as created, so does it remain dependent when it is created - He speaks, they are created; He speaks and they are gone (Psalm 104:29-30). He upholds all created things by the word of His power (Hebrews 1:3). Designed, delivered by creation, upheld by sustaining, all that is not-God whether in thought or in time, awaits His call before it is anything at all: if it is to be or not to be, is not a question, or a suggestion, but the grant of existence is a divine action if it is to occur, causative in kind, but consequential in result, as is time itself at its own institution. Time in sequence for which any must wait, is not God, who is compelled to do nothing, being entirely free, and its contents are of the same delimited order.
To put with God what did not have to be first made, gains a grant of exemption from creation, confuses thought and action, possibility and actuality, institution and constitution, turning God into a First Cause (an internality in a system), not conceiving Him as the Creator of derivative causation, and in particular of the time-space-substance setting, hence not the One accountable past all accounting, the eternal and infinite, infinitely in turn separate from the non-infinite, which, needing its bounds and limits in order to be, awaits its existence at His command, that it might BE bound. ALL creation requires bounding that it might be bound, and so be; and this is an action that must be performed. If it is not, there is no creation. Then we would be discussing what IS NOT, does not exist, has no being; but we are discussing what is.
The institution of time and its contents requires the deployment of temporality from eternity, an excursion from infinitude, an institution of what is to be constituted, orders for ordered existence; and in this way, results can come from what causes them, not intrinsically, but episodically, at will. Orders do not sit in eternity on God, as if to make a joint sovereign; but when He wishes, then He orders, and only then do things happen which are in the realm of not-God. The division is necessary, total and eternal. The whole of nature is an exposition, an imposition, a composition, and it needs composing before it can be, that it can be caused.
God is the necessary One for all binding laws and limits, including variable entities, bound to themselves without being their own source; but the moment you have in mind in philosophic conception, something as eternal as He, whether matter or any other things, possessing therefore His own freedom from causation in that it did not have to be made, you have a dual system as basis, one part of which has created characteristics (cf. SMR pp. 20ff., 422K-O). In such a position, on such a model, you have what is never absent inhabiting reality without derivation; and hence part of it. Matter however is no part of what is necessary, any more than is any other domain of the ordered and the diminishing, in any respect. If it were always there, this is a domain of matter, and places it in the co-dominion of God, which is to confuse cause and consequence, basis and actuality and to make a concept invade another to the confusion of both.
God is neither the first cause in the created system, nor One for whom the actual creation from Himself alone of ANYTHING is indispensable. He is the ONLY CAUSE of the created system, which operates as an effect of His action. It is not intrinsic, like a babe born with formulae tumbling from its mouth; it is a consequence of His deciding to will time to be, and in time, other non-eternal things to take up their being in the temporal mode for things, created outside, other than, and infinitely separable and separate from Himself.
Eternity is not a condition, but an aspect of the Eternal God, who is necessarily the case, and from whom other things are necessarily called forth by His authority. It does not work automatically, nor do vestiges of temporality secure results to gain joint tenure. There are no other worlds outside the realm of His creation, the increate being God Himself (Hebrews 1:2-3, 11:1-3, Isaiah 44:24, 45:5, Ephesians 1:19-23, 3:5-13, 4:4-6, Colossians 1:15-19. It is Christ whom He has made heir to all things, having created all things by Him (Col. 1:15ff.), "by whom He made the worlds." We understand that "the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear." What is NOT-GOD was first framed in the unseen, then made in the seen. The competent granted being to the incompetent, the Eternal granting temporality to the made, dependent for existence as for COMMAND, upon Him in all things. Crucial is this in life as in being, in duty as in composition.
It is God who formulated and formed the heavens, who created them by will, instituted them by deliberation-design-decision. Not only were "all things created" by Him, but in particular by the institution of the Word of God who became man as Jesus Christ, only Saviour in terms of the God who Himself is the only Saviour (Isaiah 43:10-11, Col. 1:15-19). To say (and hence create as in Genesis 1) and to save (and hence to grant to those who receive Him status as saved-persons, as in Ephesians 2), these are activities not bypassing God, but expressing Him.
If God does not in the first, express something, it is not found. If He does, it is found BY His expression*2A, and so created through His thought, put into deed. In the beginning was God, and then He acted (Genesis 1). If He had not been there, no action, no creation; since He was, in instituting time, He activated what in itself neither is nor can be. When the Creator is infinite, not only the things for time, but the time for things have alike to be created, so that causally they might be related to His Being, and so gain scope to exist and to be sustained.
To exist, they have to be formed for they are no part of the Eternal God; to be formed they have to be limited and delimited; and dreaming does not do this. Action is needed to institute the diversity. Neither creation nor any part of it consists with God. It exists by appointment, when given, a distinctive exercise of the divine thought thrust into the worlds now to exist. Divine action makes the non-divine, and without it, it is not there. At His will and action are all things, and there is nothing else inordinate or in that divine realm, but all has to be instituted in this or that limited dimension (as in Revelation 4:11). No action, no being; no granting of derivative status, nothing. How He treats it thereafter is another matter.
He is the cause of the entirety of the derivative modes of causation, and could remove that entirety as readily as a woman her child; but far more easily, since without Him there is an absolute gap, not a partial one. Nor is man so bound to Him in view of what He DID make, that freedom is irrelevant: it was created in that without it there is no image of God AT ALL. That it depends on the human preference in the face of divine desire, is stated in John 3, and that this desire is immense, intense for all whether in heaven or on earth is clear also with Colossians 1:19ff.. God COULD have acted the mysterious tyrant, or the unaccountable entrepreneur, but He did not choose to do so. His love is not episodic, and His plan is not discriminatory for some, on an unknown basis, but discriminating in the sense of knowing who is His. Biblically, to get to hell (John 15:22ff., Matthew 23:37ff., John 3), you have as it were to step over the former corpse of Christ, as if it were as blood underfoot (Hebrews 9-10), such is His loving intention (Colossians 1:19ff.).
It is not easy to escape the love of God; but while it is a tireless and free love of the proportions stated, that is total towards the human race, and He would have all saved (you don't need to hypothesise, for He tells you), yet it is not tyranny, it is not shanghaiing, it is not compulsion. In impact, it might seem so to the sin-smitten and convicted; but in its origin and nature, it both shows and is affirmed as livingly actualising, on a secure base of stated principle, the truth felt as surely NOW as in foreknowledge, since the latter reflects the TRUTH, as does history where He is rejected.
Both matter in its energic condition and man are declining, as is the human genome*3, for what is dependent is incompatible in essence with what is not, by virtue of its changes, limits and depositions; and what does not decline is by necessity God, without addition or insertion, companionship from anything other, or comparability in being. It is part of the marvel of the Gospel that God who did not NEED to create a universe or man, who despises the mere attempt to correlate them existentially (Isaiah 40:12-26), who created all things (Col. 1:15ff,) so that through Him they consist, and who will destroy the world and the heavens (Matthew 24:35, II Peter 3), does so much more that merely create it all. He becomes personally CONCERNED to the point of dying that free salvation might with heart and intent be offered to all (I John 2:1ff.), He becoming Lord of the dead and the living (Romans 14:9).
Where He is rejected as in reality and as foreknown before sin was, then it is not a matter of willing good, which was provided, but willing judgment. All attempts and efforts to put God into strait-jackets of aspects of His work, instead of seeing Him as of necessity as minimum He MUST be, and as in actuality, He declares Himself to be, are mere abstractions. He is far greater than parodies, pleasant paradigms and prognostications; but in mercy He has given us scope to seek and to find Him, sin making His intervention needful where the soul is foreknown, since it eclipses even reason in the spiritually muddled and confused; yet for all that it does not render them unresponsible, since the artifices of evasion are readily seen and observable, and what He foreknows is the truth, the realities interpreted by stated principle, applied with utter sagacity and wisdom.
Encyclopedia Britannica has this to say on the point.
He shows that the question whether the universe exists forever is irrelevant to that of its causal dependence on a creator, and that a spiritual substance could be individuated by, and act within, material processes.
The confusion of the substance with spiritual, when the one is the creation of the other, and the one is infinite, the other finite, leads on to the folly of the misconception of the mass all too readily. God as such is NOT any kind of a substance. It is a SUB-stance, extant through creation, NOT God. Incarnation is the USE of a FORM for an entirely and eternally spiritual being, as a mode of expression and action. No part of substance is involved as if a distillate were embodied. The BEING is spiritual as such, the form is human as such, the one uses the other and the keyword is FORM.
It is, as in Philippians 2, a way of expressing something. The expressive medium however, is one thing, and what it expresses is another. The one is part of creation, the other is its author. The qualities of what is physical are investigable, as is the bread in a mass, revealing nothing divine, for they are declarative of what the matter is. The qualities of what is wholly spiritual are attestable, and when the one uses the other to declare Himself, the nature of that one is revealed as in Jesus Christ. There is however no question of a divine substance, in the incarnation, for that is not the form of a man in whole or in part. He became man for a purpose as in Hebrews 2, with no admixture in the form. If there had been, it would not be as man He came, nor as man that He suffered, nor as man that He paid, and there would be no redemption through His flesh. It was WHO came that mattered, and that it was as man.
Accordingly, Christ being the Son of man, and as man and for man the victor for as many as received Him, Himself made the essence of the Last Supper, one of remembrance, citing no other characterising element. When God characterises Himself or any matter ,it is best to listen, on pain of rebellion.
In fact, the Supper may have a vitalising aspect as the Spirit of the Lord moves in the heart; but what it is, statedly, is a supper for remembrance, neither magical nor confused in concept. If Christ, as much man as Hebrews 2 demands, in the bread had broken His actual body, of course, it would have been suicide, and the use of this prelude to the effectual sacrifice (Colossians 1:22) at Calvary, by such conceptual distortion and definitive confusion is as inept as is the confusion of physical and spiritual, God and substance, creator and creation. It is seen once more in the RC system, where a mere man is confused with God Almighty on earth, attributed to the pope in the New York Catechism.
Aquinas appears heavily involved in the follies of Aristotle and his diminutive God and naturalistic indulgence (cf. Department of Bible ... Vol. 5, Ch. 9, Appendix), and this happens to meet his spiritual-physical aim; but does nothing except add to its de-legitimisation.
On Aquinas see DBSA 6, 8, 5, 10. and SMR pp. 1035ff., 950ff., 1059-1060, and on Aristotle, consult DBSA 5, 9 Appendix, and SMR Ch. 4, Extension.
Man comes into existence in DNA mode construction for the body; his wisdom comes from the word of God to man. As to God, His word, the Bible, the sole written, authorised and divine declaration to mankind, is definitive, uniquely testable and validated. It is persistently attacked, insistently attached to Him as its demonstrator and disestablished by no one and nothing. Indeed it is open to formal proof (cf. Department ... Vol. 5, Ch. 9), as well as verified in countless configurations of matter, events and fulfilments. In persistently pointing to it, logic is cheered by its own confirmation, and revelation is unretractable.
On the failing human genome (not progressive but retrogressive), see Waiting for Wonder, Appendix, and Journal of Creation, 28(1), 2014, pp. 122ff.. Some changes may be helpful like a bowed back to make you shorter to enter a low doorway, but they do not constitute new information, just a diseased condition which meets limited conditions, while merely inhibiting or at best not practically conditioning for a time, the recipient. Actual advance in enterprise and condition, schema and organisational sophistication is however entirely another matter, and it is not found.
In the case of living things, aggregations of copying errors, as life moves from generation to generation, for such a multitude of marvels as is contained in the vast informational exercise and linguistic control mode of the DNA, of course, obtain. Defects, passed on, grow and hover over effects.
The copying errors, as following the norm in the still unbroken Second Law of Thermodynamics (that it might BE a Law in status), DO have an effective, potentially or actually negative and potentially crippling effect (and actual cripples so born effectively dramatise this). The loading or augmentive weight over time of these errors, significantly increases as time passes, showing the subjection of biology as other temporal constructions given to man, to what is after all normal to design. When it is exposed to an intrusive environment, and so laden with defect or deficiency, leads to loss of the original perfection or completion, as the system erodes, winds down or is further from its mint.
The Desire of the Nations, Ch. 2 Epilogue
Information, Divine Information and Human Misinformation (21 linked Chapters),
Logos Uncreated ... 3 .